¿Por qué nosotros no? Acción Ciudadana por la Salud y el cambio de la Ley Española de Tabaco

Big Ban on Campus: U.S. Colleges Move to Bar Tobacco

30/06/2012 TIME Magazine

June 29, 2012

As a political science major at Ohio State University, Ida Seitter says, she lit up many a cigarette to help her through the stress of exam season. Right or wrong, they were her security blanket as she toiled through college.

Seitter, now 26, was old enough by then to make her own decisions, she says. She opposes efforts by policymakers in Ohio, New York, California and other states to impose bans on tobacco use not just in buildings at public colleges, but also anywhere on the campus – even in the open air.

“Just back away from me a little bit. I won’t blow it in your face and I’ll try not to be rude,” Seitter says. “At the same time, I think it’s a little discriminatory for a practice that is considered legal.”

Bans on use, advertising and sales of tobacco in all its forms are being enacted or considered at perhaps half of campuses nationwide, sometimes over the objections of student smokers, staff and faculty. The movement is driven by mounting evidence of the health risks of secondhand smoke, the reduced costs of smoke-free ...

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... dorms and a drive to minimize enticements to smoke at a critical age for forming lifelong habits.

California’s state system will begin to bar tobacco use in 2013. A ban on use and advertising at the City University of New York system goes into effect in September, and the University of Missouri at Columbia is going smoke-free in 2014.

Ohio higher education officials plan a vote next month urging all public campuses to ban tobacco use. That includes Ohio State, one of the nation’s largest universities, which currently bans only indoor smoking.

According to the surgeon general’s report for 2012, tobacco use among people ages 18 to 25 remains at epidemic proportions nationwide. The review found 90% of smokers started by age 18, and 99% by age 26. About a quarter to a third of college students smoke, studies have found.

The study found the U.S. would have 3 million fewer young smokers if success in reducing youth smoking by state tobacco-cessation programs from 1997 to 2003 had been sustained. Many of the programs have been hit by budget cuts.

Health and education officials, anti-smoking groups and a generation of students who grew up smoke-free are increasingly united on the issue, says Bronson Frick, associate director of Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights.

“There are many reasons why a college or university may choose to pursue this type of policy, whether secondhand smoke, dorm fires or other issues,” he says. “They are also questioning what the role of tobacco is in this academic setting, where we’re supposed to be standing for truth and training the next generation of leaders.”

According to data kept by the nonsmokers group, campus tobacco bans have risen from virtually zero a decade ago to 711 today. That includes both four-year and two-year institutions, both public and private.

One of the first campuses to ban tobacco was Ozarks Technical Community College in Springfield, Mo., which endorsed the move in 1999 and put it in place four years later. The school also established a research center that works with other colleges and hospitals pursuing similar moves, now known as the National Center for Tobacco Policy.

Ty Patterson, the center’s director, says Ozarks quickly realized that its previous policy of allowing smoking in designated outdoor areas was impractical and couldn’t be properly enforced.

Forbidding all tobacco use was deemed to be more effective than simply saying no to cigarette smoke, Patterson says.

“When you go smoke-free, you drive smokers to use smokeless tobacco, which is more addictive,” he says.

Cigarette-size cigars containing candy and fruit flavorings, dissolvable strips and lozenges are among the smokeless tobacco products being targeted to youths, according to the surgeon general. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says studies show many smokers mix and match such products with cigarettes as they move from smoking to nonsmoking venues.

Compliance with tobacco bans is generally voluntary, and violations come with few, if any, real penalties. Repeat offenders are sometimes subjected to university disciplinary policies, which vary by school.

While precise statistics on the number of campuses curtailing tobacco are elusive, Patterson estimates that one-third to one-half of all higher education institutions have either made the move or are considering it.

Smoking rights advocate Audrey Silk, founder of New York Citizens Lobbying Against Smoker Harassment, says any outdoor ban — whether for a campus, beach or public park — is an attack on the rights of one segment of the population.

“This isn’t a health issue anymore. It’s a moral issue,” she says. “There’s absolutely zero reason for a smoking ban outdoors. They use it as a tool. Harm from smoke outdoors is an excuse to frustrate smokers into quitting because they can’t find a place to light up.”

Silk says it’s not the place of schools to enforce health issues.

“Schools are a business,” she says. “Who assigned them the role of behavior modification? It’s their responsibility to educate. What they’re doing is indoctrinating.”

Tobacco companies have also questioned the role of universities to take such steps. With limited lobbying power at the college level, they have pursued legislation in some states to pre-empt tobacco-control decisions from occurring at any but the state level.

A spokesman for Philip Morris USA Inc., the nation’s largest tobacco company, deferred comment to the company website, which states that some smoking restrictions are justified but that all-out bans “go too far.”

“Smoking should be permitted outdoors except in very particular circumstances, such as outdoor areas primarily designed for children,” it states.

Seitter, who now works as development coordinator for the Columbus Board of Realtors, says budding college smokers often took up the habit after-hours, at venues such as bars that campus tobacco bans don’t reach.

“You find a lot of people start drinking at that age, and many people who don’t consider themselves smokers, they smoke when they drink,” she says. “I would think that atmosphere has more of an effect than somebody smoking on the corner.”

—By Julie Carr Smyth/Columbus, Oh. Contributing to this report were Associated Press writers Alan Scher Zagier in Columbia, Mo.; Michael Gormley and Rik Stevens in Albany, N.Y.; Kathy Matheson in Philadelphia; and Kevin Begos in Pittsburgh.

Read more: http://healthland.time.com/2012/06/29/big-ban-on-campus-u-s-colleges-move-toward-barring-all-tobacco/#ixzz1zJaSdKHd

Exposure to Secondhand Smoke May Increase Chance of Developing Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity

27/06/2012 Forbes

June 26, 2012

Need another reason to avoid second hand smoke?

According to the results of a new study from the Endocrine Society meeting in Houston this week, adults who are exposed to secondhand smoke have higher rates of type 2 diabetes and risk for developing obesity.

Previous research has identified a link between cigarette smoking and an increased rate of Type 2 diabetes even though most smokers are leaner than nonsmokers and obesity is a risk factor for Type 2 diabetes. Although some studies have implicated a relationship between Type 2 diabetes and exposure to secondhand smoke, older studies did not confirm exposure to secondhand smoke through serum (blood) levels of cotinine. Cotinine is a metabolite of nicotine, and serum cotinine levels serve as an individual’s measure of exposure to tobacco smoke.

Dr. Theodore Friedman from Charles Drew Medical Center in LA evaluated data from 6,300 patients from 2001-2006 who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which represents a sample of ...

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... the US population. Investigators evaluated serum cotinine levels as a measure of passive exposure to smoke in nonsmokers. They found that nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke had levels of cotinine comparable to smokers.

After controlling for age, sex , race, physical activity and alcohol consumption, researchers found that individuals exposed to second hand smoke had higher levels of hemoglobin A1C , a measure of blood sugar control (ultimately reflecting insulin resistance). Higher levels of hemoglobin A1C greater than 6.5% are linked with linked with development of Type 2 diabetes. Individuals exposed to second hand smoke had consistently higher levels of fasting blood sugar and levels of hemoglobin A1C, reflecting onset of Type 2 diabetes. Clearly this observed effect was not due to obesity.

Secondhand smokers also had a higher BMI, which is a measure of body fat, than nonsmokers. According to Friedman’s study, current smokers had a lower BMI than nonsmokers, but a higher Hemoglobin A1C. However, when the researchers controlled for BMI, individuals exposed to secondhand smoke and those who currently smoked still had a higher hemoglobin A1C than nonsmokers.

As we all know, it may be difficult to avoid secondhand smoke in public. Restaurants and bars in some states are “safe” places at this point. However,if you happen to be in a home or apartment filled with smoke, you may want to think twice.

Perhaps one of the best anti-smoking ads ever created

24/06/2012 THAI HEALTH

Ogilvy Asia created ‘Smoking Kid’, an ad for Thai Health Promotion Foundation [THPF]. In the ad kids ask for a light from an adult smoker, all the smokers share reasons why the kids should not smoke. The kids then ask why they are smoking and hand the smoker a piece of paper which reads, ‘You worry about me, but why not about yourself?’


How tobacco companies dodge advertising bans

21/06/2012 Herald Sun

TOBACCO companies are dodging advertising bans by using films, TV and the internet to target children, a new survey says.

More than three-quarters of 1000 people aged 12 to 24 surveyed by the Cancer Institute NSW reported seeing tobacco promotion or advertising in films.

Over half of all the respondents also saw its promotion on TV.

Seventy-seven per cent of those surveyed said they noticed people smoking - or the promotion of smoking - in movies, followed by 68 per cent who saw it on TV and 31 per cent in licensed venues.

Twenty-six per cent of those surveyed said it was evident in video games.

The figures were slightly higher for the under-18s, with 24 per cent noticing it in pubs, 26 per cent on the internet and a jump to 71 per cent for TV.

The report said tobacco companies had diverted resources to non-traditional promotional channels.

"Adolescents and young people are the most vulnerable to the tobacco industry's suggestive messages," Cancer Institute NSW CEO Prof David Currow said in a statement.

Protecting Children from ...

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... Tobacco coordinator Stafford Sanders said governments needed to go further to reduce children's exposure to smoking in public venues and events, and to reduce promotion of smoking in media, including the internet.

"Continued smoking promotion to youth is undermining government strategies to reduce and denormalise smoking," he said.

However, he said content on social media websites can't be government controlled, exposing children to web pages and groups supporting tobacco brands.

Mr Sanders said many of these pages that "like" particular brands have been traced back to tobacco company employees.

"We have no doubt that the tobacco industry's goal is children, as the vast number of smokers are recruited when they are teenagers," Mr Sanders said.

"Of the young people who take up smoking, half will die from tobacco-related diseases."

CANADA - Tobacco products to carry graphic anti-smoking messages as of today

20/06/2012 OTTAWA — The Canadian Press

The new numbers emerged as the federal government trumpeted its mandatory new graphic anti-smoking packaging for cigarettes and small cigars.

In 2011, 1 in 5 Canadians aged 12 and older — nearly 5.8 million people — smoked on an occasional or a daily basis, down from 25.9 per cent in 2001, the statistics agency reported.

Among teens aged 15 to 17 the rate fell to 9.4 per cent from 20.8 per cent. For those aged 18 to 19, the rate dropped to one in five from one in three.

Ottawa is continuing its efforts to persuade people to quit with tougher packaging rules, which became mandatory for retailers today.

The new labelling, which must cover three-quarters of cigarette packages, includes grisly pictures of a cancer-infected mouth and of an emaciated, cancer-stricken Barb Tarbox.

Ms. Tarbox was an anti-smoking activist before dying of lung cancer at the age of 42. Her story, among others, is featured in the new packaging, which was unveiled last year.

“This initiative continues our efforts to inform Canadians — especially young people — ...

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... about the health hazards of smoking,” Health Minister Leona Aglukkaq said in a news release.

A national “quitline” and website address also figure prominently on the new packs.

The newly released statistics suggest that not only are fewer people smoking, many who do are smoking less.

Of the 5.8 million smokers in 2011, nearly 4.4 million smoked cigarettes on a daily basis, but heavy smoking — a pack or more a day — is waning.

In 2011, 23.5 per cent of men who smoked daily were heavy smokers, down from 30.9 per cent a decade ago. Among women, the rate fell to 14.2 per cent from 20.3 per cent.

On the other hand, the rate of light daily smoking — 14 cigarettes a day or fewer — increased for both sexes, although the trend was more pronounced for women.

Overall, the average number of cigarettes smoked per day fell to 15 in 2011 from 17 in 2001.

Exposure to second-hand smoke has been halved, the numbers show.

The proportion of non-smokers aged 12 and older who were regularly exposed to second-hand smoke at home declined to 5.5 per cent in 2011 from 10.6 per cent in 2003.

Vietnam law bans smoking in public

19/06/2012 yahoo!!! news

Vietnam has passed a law banning smoking in public places and all tobacco advertising, an official said Tuesday.

The law, passed by 440 out of 468 national assembly deputies on Monday, also makes it illegal to sell tobacco products to anyone under 18 years old, said the parliamentary official, who did not want to be named.

It will take effect from next May, state media said.

Smoking in public places -- including schools, hospitals, office buildings and on public transport -- was banned once already in 2010 by a government decree, which also raised tax on tobacco and restricted the sale of cigarettes.

But that order was widely ignored, with smoking in public places widespread and cigarettes available at small kiosks on nearly every street in the capital Hanoi.

The anti-smoking campaign group Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance (SEATCA) welcomed the new law -- the full text of which has not yet been released -- saying it was a "historic and important milestone" for the country.

"We are very happy about this development," SEATCA ...

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... director Bungon Ritthiphakdee said, adding that the final version of the law was strong and in line with the WHO-Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

According to SEATCA, there are currently 15.3 million smokers in Vietnam. Some 47.4 percent of adult males smoke.

Tobacco kills 40,000 people per year in Vietnam and that figure is expected to rise to 70,000 per year by 2030, according to local media reports.

Study shows smoking costs Indiana billions

18/06/2012 thestarpress.com

MUNCIE — As Indiana prepares for a statewide smoking ban on July 1, a new study from Ball State University finds that 21.2 percent of Hoosiers admit to regularly lighting up a cigarette, a habit costing the state nearly $2.6 billion in productivity losses and $2.2 billion in health care costs each year.

“Burden of Smoking among Adults in Indiana,” a report by Ball State's Global Health Institute based on 2010 data from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), ranks the state 42nd worst in terms of percentage of population among the 50 states and District of Columbia. Only eight states have higher smoking rates than Indiana.

“We have known for decades that smoking is counterproductive for our health and plays a major role for the spiraling health care costs facing both employees and their employers," Kerry Anne McGeary, GHI director and Phyllis A. Miller professor of health economics, said in a press release from Ball State. “When combined with our reports on obesity and asthma, this report demonstrates that on average Hoosiers have health issues and ...

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... engage in behaviors that put them at risk for chronic conditions."

She pointed out that on average, about 9,700 deaths per year in Indiana are attributable to smoking while the habit is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, accounting for one in five deaths or about 443,000 each year.

"Smoking causes cancer, heart disease, stroke and lung disease, ailments that are preventable simply by not lighting up in the first place,” McGeary. “Smoking kills half of its users. About one person dies every six seconds due to tobacco. This data sends a clear message to smokers that they are involved in a very dangerous habit.”

The study also found:

• About 23.3 percent of males are currently smoking as compared to 19.3 of women.

• Adults older than 65 have the lowest smoking rate at 8 percent as compared to adults 18-24 years old at 21.2 percent, 25-44 years old at 26.1 percent and 45-64 years old at 22.6 percent.

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